Safa Kasap

     Safa Kasap  B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D., D.Sc., P. Eng

    Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
    Canada Research Chair in Electronic and Optoelectronic Materials and Devices

    Biography

    Safa Kasap
    PhD, DSc, PEng, EurIng (EU), CEng (UK), FRSC, FCGI, FAPS, FCAE, FEIC, FSPIE, FInstP, FIET, FIMMM, FAIP, FSGT
    Canada Research Chair in Electronic and Optoelectronic Materials and Devices

    Born in 1953, Safa Kasap grew up in London, England, and obtained a BSEE (1976), MSc (1978) and PhD (1983) from the Imperial College of Science and Technology at the University of London, specializing in optoelectronic materials and devices. In July, 1986, Professor Kasap joined the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) as an assistant professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering. Two years later he was promoted to associate professor, and in July, 1992 he was made a full professor, which is an externally reviewed appointment. During a sabbatical from the U of S (1997), Professor Kasap was a Visiting Research Scientist with Dr. John Rowlands at the Sunnybrook Hospital at the University of Toronto, where they jointly wrote a number of articles on direct conversion detectors, including the Physics Today feature article that was published in November 1997. In 2002, he was named a Canada Research Chair (Tier 1) in Electronic and Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, a seven-year appointment, which has been renewed in 2009. He is currently also the Director of the Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices Research Laboratories in the College of Engineering. (There are eight major laboratories.)
    In addition to two well-known textbooks on electronic materials and devices, and optoelectronics and photonics (with translations in Greek, Korean and Chinese), and numerous chapters in books, handbooks and encyclopedias and reviews, Safa Kasap has published more than two hundred articles in refereed international journals, as well as invited papers in a number of prestigious journals. He has been invited to present his research at numerous international conferences and, to date, has given two plenary presentations. He has participated extensively in committee work both at the U of S and in professional associations and committees outside the university. He has been a member of the editorial boards of well-known engineering journals, and since January 1998, he has been the Reviews Editor and Deputy Editor for J. Materials Science: Materials in Electronics (Springer). In 2002 and 2003 he was the Guest Editor of two prestigious special issues of the IEE Proceedings on Circuits, Devices and Systems, published by the Institution of Electrical Engineers; these issues were entitled “Selected Topics on Electronic Noise,” and “Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors.” Dr. Kasap has been the Chair of the International Advisory Committee and Chair of the Program Committee of the International Conference on Optical, Optoelectronic and Photonic Materials and Applications, ICOOPMA (Darwin, 2006 and London, 2007, both sponsored by Springer). He was the Conference Chair of ICOOPMA2008, July 2008, held in Edmonton, Canada (http://icoopma2008.usask.ca). He is a member of the program and international advisory committees of the Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference (CSTC), the International Conference on Photo-Excited Processes and Applications (ICPEPA), The International Symposium on Non-Oxide Glasses (ISNOG) and the International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP). Recently, Dr. Peter Capper (UK) and Professor Kasap edited a major comprehensive reference work entitled The Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials that has 55 chapters and 1400 pages which has been published by Springer (Heidelberg, Germany, 2006). He has just completed writing a new major reference book (with two other authors, Harry Ruda and Yann Boucher) entitled The Cambridge Illustrated Handbook of Optoelectronics and Photonics, Cambridge University Press, 2009.
    Professor Kasap is currently involved in eight funded research projects supported by grants from NSERC and industry. His most important project is on enhancing the properties x-ray photoconductors for x-ray image detectors, and developing new models for these novel direct conversion detectors. His other projects involve rare-earth (Er) doped glasses for photonics, Sm and Eu doped fluorozirconate glasses as scintillators and phosphors for medical imaging, and excess noise in devices. His pioneering works in the last twenty years on a-Se alloys was responsible for the development of the x-ray photoconductor alloy material used in recently commercialized a-Se direct conversion x-ray image detectors for medical imaging; these detectors have shown to have the highest resolution. His research funds to date total over $11 million. He has supervised 23 MSc and 7 PhD theses and 19 PDFs and numerous research associates to date. Many of his past students and PDFs currently hold key positions in industry and academia. In 2006, he gave the Georgi Nadjakoff Memorial Lecture, which is the most prestigious plenary lecture in the International School on Condensed Matter Physics (14th ISCMP, Varna, September 2006).
    Among Professor Kasap’s honours and awards received to date is a DSc in Engineering (1996) from the University of London, for his distinct contributions to materials science in electrical engineering. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, the Canadian Academy of Engineering, the Engineering Institute of Canada, the American Physical Society, the Institution of Electrical Engineers (now the Institution of Engineering and Technology), the Institute of Materials (IOM3), the Institute of Physics, the Society for Glass Technology, and the Australian Institute of Physics and the SPIE. He was awarded a Fellow of the City and Guilds London Institute (FCGI) in the UK for his outstanding contributions to engineering education; FCGI is only given to a few individuals who have been recognized for their societal contributions, including contributions to education and vocational training

    Publications

    Selected Journal Papers

    [212] JOURNAL PAPERS ACCEPTED AND IN PRESS
    [211] 1. Safa Kasap, K. Koughia, Gokulakrishnan Soundararajan1, M.G. Brik, " Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Glasses (GeGaS:Er)", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, [IEEE, in press, 2008]
    [210] 2. W. C. Tan, S. Kobayashi, T. Aoki, R.E. Johanson and Safa Kasap, "Optical properties of amorphous silicon nitride thin-films prepared by VHF-PECVD using silane and nitrogen", Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 2008.
    [209] [Springer, print version in press, 2008; available online at http://www.springerlink.com; ISSN: 1573-482X (Online); DOI: 10.1007/s10854-007-9422-2)
    [208] 3. Z. G. Ivanova, C. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, J. Heo, D. Tonchev, M. Jayasimhadri, S. O. Kasap, "The influence of CsBr addition on optical and thermal properties of GeGaS glasses doped with erbium", Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 2008.
    [207] [Springer, print version in press, 2008; available online at http://www.springerlink.com; ISSN: 1573-482X (Online); DOI: 10.1007/s10854-008-9660-y)
    [206] 4. C. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, S. O. Kasap, T. W. Allen, C. Haugen, R. Decorby, N. Ohrui, T. Aoki, and C. Fujihashi, “Characterization Of 4I9/2↔4F3/2 Optical Transitions In Trivalent Nd3+ Ions In GaLaS Glass”, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 2008.
    [205] [Springer, print version in press, 2008; available online at http://www.springerlink.com; ISSN: 1573-482X (Online); DOI: 10.1007/s10854-007-9423-1)
    [204] 5. J. Gutwirth, T. Wágner, P. Němec, S.O. Kasap and M. Frumar, "Thermal and optical properties of AgSbS2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD)" J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 2008
    [203] [Elsevier, print version in press, 2008; available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com; DOI:10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2007.08.083]
    [202] 6. K. Jandieri, O. Rubel, S. D. Branovskii, A. Reznik, J. A. Rowlands, and S. O. Kasap, “Lucky-drift model for impact ionization in amorphous semiconductors”, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 2008. [Springer, in press, 2008]
    [201] 7. C. Koughia and S. O. Kasap, “Excitation diffusion due to photon trapping in GeGaSe glasses heavily doped with Er3+”, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 2007. [Springer, in press, 2008]
    [200] 8. A. Reznik, S.D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, K. Jandieri, S.O. Kasap, Y.Ohkawa, M. Kubota and K. Tanioka, J. A. Rowlands, "Avalanche multiplication in amorphous selenium and its utilization in imaging", J. Non-Crystalline Solids [Elsevier, in press, 2008]
    [199] JOURNAL PAPERS PUBLISHED
    [198] 9. K. (Cyril) Koughia and Safa Kasap, "Excitation diffusion in GeGaSe and GeGaS glasses heavily doped with Er3+", Optics Express, 16 (11), 7709 – 7714, 2008 (The Optical Society of America, 13 May 2008, http://www.opticsexpress.org/issue.cfm)
    [197] 10. C. Allen, G. Belev, Robert Johanson and S.O. Kasap, " Relaxation of electrical properties of stabilized amorphous selenium based photoconductors", J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 354, 2711–2714, 2008 (Elsevier, 2008)
    [196] 11. K. Jandieri, O. Rubel, S.D. Baranovskii, A. Reznik, J.A. Rowlands and S.O. Kasap, " Scattering and movement asymmetry in the one-dimensional lucky-drift simulation of the avalanche processes in disordered semiconductors", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 354, 2657-2661, 2008.
    [195] [Available online 1 February 2008 at http://www.sciencedirect.com, Elsevier, in press, 2008]
    [194] 12. George Belev, Safa Kasap (University of Saskatchewan) and J.A. Rowlands, David Hunter and Martin Yaffe (Sunnybrook Hospital, University of Toronto), "Dependence of the electrical properties of stabilized a-Se on the preparation conditions and the development of a double layer x-ray detector structure", Current Applied Physics, 8, 383-387, 2008 [Elsevier. Available online 1 November 2007]
    [193] 13. A. Reznik, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel, G. Juska, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, K. Tanioka, and J. A. Rowlands, “Avalanche multiplication phenomenon in amorphous semiconductors: Amorphous selenium versus hydrogenated amorphous silicon”, Journal of Applied Physics, 102, 53711–53718, 2007. [Published 1 September 2007; available online 14 September 2007]
    [192] 14. K. Jandieri, O. Rubel, S. D. Baranovskii, A. Reznik, J. A. Rowlands, and S. O. Kasap, " One-dimensional lucky-drift model with scattering and movement asymmetries for impact ionization in amorphous semiconductors", Physica Status Solidi C (Current Topics in Solid State Physics), 5 (3), 796–799, 2008. [Wiley. Available online 30 January 2008]
    [191] 15. D. M. Hunter, G. Belev, G. DeCrescenzo, S. O. Kasap, J. G. Mainprize, J. A. Rowlands, C. Smith, T. Tumer, V. Verpakhovski, S. Yin and M. J. Yaffe, “The dependence of the modulation transfer function on the blocking layer thickness in amorphous selenium x-ray detectors”, Medical Physics, 34 (8), 3358–3373, August 2007. [Published 27 July 2007]
    [190] 16. G. Belev, D. Tonchev, B. Fogal, C. Allen and S.O. Kasap, "Effects of Oxygen and Chlorine on Charge Transport in Vacuum Deposited Pure a-Se Films", Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 68 (5–6), 972–977, 2007 [May-June]
    [189] 17. J. Gutwirth, T. Wágner, P. Bezdička, Mil. Vlček, S.O. Kasap and M. Frumar, "Influence of silver concentration in Agx(Sb0.33S0.67)100−x thin amorphous films on photoinduced crystallization", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 353 (13–15), 1431–1436 [15 May 2007]
    [188] 18. M. Krbal, T. Wagner, T. Srba, J. Schwarz, J. Orava, T. Kohoutek, V. Zima, L. Benes, S.O. Kasap and M. Frumar, "Properties and structure of Agx(As0.33S0.67)100− x bulk glasses" Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 353 (13–15), 1232–1237 [15 May 2007]
    [187] 19. Koichi Shimakawa, Kenji Fukami, Hiroki Kishi, George Belev, and Safa Kasap, " X-ray Induced Effects on Photocurrents in Amorphous Se Films", Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 46 (9), L192–L195, 2007 [Available online 23 February 2007; http://jjap.ipap.jp]
    [186] 20. T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Krbal, A. Fejfar, T. Mates, S.O. Kasap and M. Frumar, "Surface morphology of spin-coated As–S–Se chalcogenide thin films", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 353, (13–15), 1437–1440, 2007 [15 May 2007]
    [185] 21. T.Aoki, D.Saitou, S. Kobayashi, C. Fujihashi, K.Shimakawa, M.Munzar, K.Koughia, S.O.Kasap, "Slow Luminescence from Er3+ Centers in Er-Doped GeGaSe Chalcogenide Glasses Observed by Wideband Quadrature Frequency-Resolved Spectroscopy", J. Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 18, S97–S101, 2007 [October 2007 Special Supplement]
    [184] 22. Robert E. Johanson, Matthew Kowalshyn, Daniel DeForrest, K. Shimakawa and S O. Kasap, "The Kinetics of Photoinduced Dichroism in Thin Films of Amorphous Arsenic Triselenide", J. Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 18, S127–130, 2007 [October 2007 Special Supplement]
    [183] 23. K. Koughia, M. Munzar, T. Aoki, S.O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence Spectra and Lifetimes of Transitions in Erbium Doped GeGaSe and GeGaS Glasses", J. Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 18, S153–157, 2007 [October 2007 Special Supplement]
    [182] 24. M. Krbal, S. Stehlιk, T. Wagner, L. Benes, S. O. Kasap, J. Schwarz and M. Frumar, "Properties and structure of Agx(As0.33S0.335Se0.335)100− x bulk glasses", J. Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 18, S213–S216, 2007 [October 2007 Special Supplement]
    [181] 25. J. Ikuta, K. Maeda, T. Sakai, T.Ikari, K.Koughia, M. Munzar, S.O. Kasap, " Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Er-doped (GeSe2)1-x(Ga2Se3)x Bulk Glasses", J. Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 18, S231–S234, 2007 [October 2007 Special Supplement]
    [180] 26. K. Maeda, T. Sakai, K. Sakai, T. Ikari, M. Munzar ,D. Tonchev, S.O. Kasap, and G. Lucovsky, "Effect of Ga on the Structure of Ge-Se-Ga Glasses from Thermal Analysis, Raman and XPS Measurements", J. Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 18, S367–S370, 2007 [October 2007 Special Supplement]
    [179] 27. Wee Chong Tan, George Belev, K. Koughia, Robert Johanson, Stephen O’Leary, Safa Kasap, "Optical Properties of Vacuum Deposited and Chlorine Doped a-Se Thin Films: Aging Effects", J. Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 18, S429–S433, 2007 [October 2007 Special Supplement]
    [178] 28. S.O. Kasap, K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, D. Saitou, T. Aoki, "Recent Photoluminescence Research on Chalcogenide Glasses for Photonics Applications ", J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 353 (13–15) 1364–1371, 2007 [15 May 2005]
    [177] 29. Z.G. Ivanova, Z. Aneva, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, S.O. Kasap, "On the optical absorption and photoluminescence of Er-doped Ge–S–Ga glasses", J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 353 (13–15) 1330–1332, 2007 [15 May 2007]
    [176] 30. Z.G. Ivanova, Z. Aneva, R. Ganesan, D. Tonchev, E.S.R. Gopal, K.S.R.K. Rao, T.W. Allen, R.G. DeCorby and S.O. Kasap, "Low Temperature Er3+ Emission in Ge-S-Ga Glasses Excited by Host Absorption", J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 353 (13–15), 1418–1421, 2007 [15 May 2007]
    [175] 31. S.O. Kasap and G. Belev, "Progress in the Science and Technology of Direct Conversion X-Ray Image Detectors: The Development of a Double Layer a-Se Based Detector ", Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 9 (1), 1–10, 2007 [January 2007]
    [174] 32. D. T. Tonchev, K. V. Koughia, Z.G. Ivanova and S.O. Kasap, " Thermal and optical properties of erbium doped (GeS2)75(Ga2S3)25 glasses ", Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 9 (2), 337–340, 2007.
    [173] 33. T. Wagner, J. Gutwirth, P. Bezdicka, T. Grygar, J. Pokorny, P. Nemec, Mil. Vlcek, M. Frumar, and S. O. Kasap, “Optically induced crystallization in amorphous Agx(Sb0.33S0.67)100-x films”, J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 352 (6–7), 578–583, May 2006. [Published 15 May 2006; available online 17 February 2006]
    [172] 34. A. Reznik, B. J. M. Lui, J. A. Rowlands, S. D. Baranovskii, O. Rubel , V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, S. O. Kasap, Y. Ohkawa, T. Matsubara, K. Miyakawa, M. Kubota, K. Tanioka, and T. Kawai, "Kinetics of the Photostructural Changes in a-Se Films", J. Applied Physics (AIP), 100, 113506–113511, 2006. [Available online 4 December 2006]
    [171] 35. S.O. Kasap, M. Zahangir Kabir and J.A. Rowlands (University of Toronto), "Recent Advances in X-ray Photoconductors for Direct Conversion X-ray Image Detectors", Current Applied Physics, 6, 288–292 2006.
    [170] 36. M. Zahangir Kabir, E. V. Emelianova, V. I. Arkhipov, M. Yunus, G. Adriaenssens, and S. O. Kasap, "The Effects of Large Signals on Charge Collection in Radiation Detectors: Application to Amorphous Selenium Detectors", Journal of Applied Physics, 99, 124501–124509, 2006.
    [169] 37. K. Maeda, J.Ikuta, T.Arima, T. Sakai, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, T. Ikari and S.O. Kasap, "Effect of Thermal Annealing on The Photoluminescence of Er Doped Ge-Se-Ga Glasse", Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B (Society of Glass Technology), 47, 189–192, 2006
    [168] 38. T. Wagner, M.Krbal, M. Frumar, P. Nemec, B. Frumarova, M. Vlcek, S.O. Kasap, “Agx(As0.33S0.67)100-x amorphous bulk chalcogenide glasses and films prepared by pulsed laser deposition”, Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B (Society of Glass Technology), 47, 158–168, 2006
    [167] 39. Cyril Koughia and S.O. Kasap, "Density of States of a-Se Near the Valence Band", J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 352 (15 June), 1539–1542, 2006.
    [166] 40. K.Koughia1, D. Saitou, T. Aoki, M. Munzar, S.O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence Lifetime Spectrum in Erbium Doped Ge-Ga-S Glasses ", J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 352, 2420–2424, 2006 [15 July 2006]
    [165] 41. M. Munzar, K. Koughia, S.O. Kasap, C. Haugen, R. DeCorby, J.N. McMullin, "Photoluminescence Properties of Er-Doped Ge-Ga-Se Glasses", Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B (Society of Glass Technology), 47, 220–224, 2006.
    [164] 42. G. Belev and S. O. Kasap, "Reduction of the Dark Current in Stabilized a-Se Based X-Ray Detectors", J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 352, 1616–1620, 2006. [Patent filed on this work]
    [163] 43. T. Sakai, K. Maeda, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, T. Ikari and S.O. Kasap, "Thermal and Optical Analysis on Ge-Ga-Se Chalcogenide Glasses ", Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B (Society of Glass Technology), 47 , 225– 228, 2006.
    [162] 44. M. Zahangir Kabir, M. Yunus, S. O. Kasap, O. Tousignant, H. Mani, and P. Gauthier, "Sensitivity of Stabilized a-Se Based X-Ray Photoconductors", Current Applied Physics, 6, 393–398,2006.
    [161] 45. Wei Zhao, G. DeCrescenzo, S O. Kasap, and J. A. Rowlands, "Ghosting caused by bulk charge trapping in direct conversion flat-panel detectors using amorphous selenium", Medical Physics, 32, 488 –500, 2005.
    [160] 46. M. Munzar, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, S.O. Kasap, T. Sakai (Miyazaki University), K. Maeda, Y. Ikari, C. Haugen (TRLabs), R. Decorby, J.N. McMullin, "Influence of Ga on the optical and thermal properties of Er2S3 doped stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric Ge-Ga-Se Glasses", Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B (Society of Glass Technology), 46, 215–219, 2005.
    [159] 47. Z. G. Ivanova, D. Tonchev, R. Ganesan, E. S. R. Gopal, and S. O. Kasap, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-S-Ga Glasses”, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 7 (4), 1863–1867, 2005. [August 2005]
    [158] 48. K. Maeda (Miyazaki University), T. Sakai, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, T. Ikari, and S.O. Kasap, “The influence of Te on thermal properties of Er-doped (Ge30(Se1-xTex)70)94Ga6 chalcogenide glasses”, Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology, 122, 20–23, 2005 [25 August 2005]
    [157] 49. J. Gutwirth, T. Wagner, S. O. Kasap, and M. Frumar, “A study of thin amorphous (Ag)-Sb-S films prepared by thermal evaporation combined with optically induced diffusion and dissolution of silver”, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 7 (4), 1813–1821, 2005. [August 2005]
    [156] 50. T. Wagner, M. Munzar, M.Krbal, and S.O. Kasap, “Photocalorimetric measurement of the heat flow during optically and thermally induced solid state reaction between Ag and As33S67 thin films”, Thermochimica Acta, 432, 241–245, 2005 [Elsevier, 25 July 2005]
    [155] 51. D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, M. Munzar, T. Sakai, K. Maeda, and S. O. Kasap, “Optical properties and thermal stability of Er-doped As-Se(Te, S)-Ge-Ga glasses for photonics”, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 7 (1), 333–336, 2005. [February 2005]
    [154] 52. M. Munzar, C. Koughia, D. Tonchev, K. Maeda (Miyazaki University), T. Ikari, C. Haugen (University of Alberta), R. Decorby, J.N. McMullin, and S.O. Kasap, “Optical properties of Er-doped Gax(Ge0.3Se0.7)100-x glasses”, Optical Materials, 28, 225–230, 2005. [Available online 8 February 2005]
    [153] 53. Ray G. Decorby (University of Alberta), Nakeeran Ponnampalam, Mahesh M. Pai, Hue T. Nguyen, Prabhat K. Dwivedi, Thomas J. Clement, Chris J. Haugen, Jim N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “High index contrast waveguides in chalcogenide glass and polymer”, IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 11, 539–546, 2005.
    [152] 54. K. Koughia, Z. Shakoor, S.O. Kasap, and J.M. Marshall, “Density of localized electronic sates in a-Se from electron time-of-flight photocurrent measurements”, Journal of Applied Physics, 97, 033706–033717, 2005 [Available online 14 January 2005]
    [151] 55. P.K. Dwivedi, Y.W. Sun, Y.Y. Tsui, D. Tonchev, M. Munzar, K. Koughia, C.J. Haugen, R.G. DeCorby, J.N. McMullin, and S.O. Kasap, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition”, Applied Surface Science, 248, 376–380, 2005. [Elsevier, 30 July 2005, available online 25 April 2005]
    [150] 56. K. Koughia, M. Munzar, D. Tonchev, C.J. Haugen, R.G. Decorby, J.N. McMullin, and S.O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses”, Journal of Luminescence, 112 (4), 92–96, 2005. [Elsevier, published 1 April 2005; available online 13 October 2004]
    [149] 57. Z.G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, D. Tonchev, J.C. Pivin (Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, France), and S.O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence in Er-implanted amorphous Ge-S-Ga thin films”, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 7, 1271–1276, 2005.
    [148] 58. Z. G. Ivanova, K. Koughia, Z.Aneva, D. Tonchev, V.S. Vassilev (University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Bulgaria), and S.O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence of Er3+ ions in (GeS2)80(Ga2S3)20 Glasses”, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 7, 349–352, 2005.
    [147] 59. M. Yunus, M. Zahangir Kabir, and S.O. Kasap, “Sensitivity reduction mechanisms in amorphous selenium photoconductive x-ray image detectors”, Applied Physics Letters, 85, 6430–6432, 2004.
    [146] 60. N. Ponnampalam (University of Alberta, TRLabs), R.G. Decorby, H.T. Nguyen, P.K. Dwivedi, C.J. Haugen, J.N. McMullin, and S.O. Kasap, “Small core rib waveguides with embedded gratings in As2Se3 glass”, Optics Express (Optical Society of America), 12, 6270–6277, 2004.
    [145] 61. G. Belev and S.O. Kasap, “Amorphous selenium as an x-ray photoconductor”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 345, 484–488, 2004. [Elsevier, 15 October 2004, available online 12 November 2004]
    [144] 62. T. Wagner (University of Pardubice), M. Krbal, J. Gutwirth, P. Nemec, Mir. Vlcek, M. Frumar, V. Perina, A. Mackova, V. Hnatovitz, S.O. Kasap, and Mil. Vlcek, “Characterization of Ag-As-S and Ag-Sb-S amorphous films prepared by pulsed laser deposition”, Surface and Interface Analysis, 36 (8), 1140–1143, 2004. [Wiley, available online 12 August 2004]
    [143] 63. Safa Kasap (University of Saskatchewan), J.A. Rowlands (University of Toronto), S.D. Baranovskii (Marburg University, Germany), and Kenkichi Tanioka (NHK, Japan), “Lucky drift impact ionization in amorphous semiconductors”, Journal of Applied Physics, 96, 2037–2048, 2004.
    [142] 64. T. Wagner, M. Krbal, P. Nemec, M. Frumar, Th. Wagner, Mil. Vlcek, V. Perina, A. Mackova, V. Hnatovitz, and S.O. Kasap, “AgAsS2 amorphous chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition”, Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing, 79, 1563–1565, 2004. Springer, available online 19 July 2004]
    [141] 65. M. Zahangir Kabir and S.O. Kasap, “Charge collection and absorption-limited x-ray sensitivity of pixellated x-ray detectors”, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, 22, 975-980, 2004. [American Institute of Physics]
    [140] 66. Bud Fogal, M. Zahangir Kabir, Stephen K. O'Leary, Robert E. Johanson, and S.O. Kasap, “X-ray-induced recombination effects in a-Se-based x-ray photoconductors used in direct conversion x-ray sensors”, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, 22, 1005–1009, 2004. [American Institute of Physics]
    [139] 67. R.M. Bryce (University of Alberta), H.T. Nguyen, P. Nakeeran, R.G. Decorby, P.K. Dwivedi, C.J. Haugen, J.N. McMullin, and S.O. Kasap, “Direct UV patterning of waveguide devices in As2Se3 thin films”, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, 22, 1044–1047, 2004. [American Institute of Physics]
    [138] 68. T.W. Allen (TRLabs), M.M. Hawkeye, C.J. Haugen, R.G. Decorby, J.N. McMullin, D. Tonchev, K. Koughia, and S.O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses”, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, 22, 921–924, 2004. [American Institute of Physics]
    [137] 69. K.V. Koughia, B. Fogal, G. Belev, R.E. Johanson, and S.O. Kasap, “Density of states in the mobility gap of stabilized a-Se from electron time-of-flight photocurrent analysis”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 338, 569–573, 2004. [Elsevier, available online 8 May 2004]
    [136] 70. T. Wagner (University of Pardubice), T. Kohoutek, V. Perina, A. Mackova, V. Hnatowitz, Th. Wagner, S.O. Kasap, M. Krbal, M. Frumar, and Mil. Vlcek, “Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy of amorphous films of Ag-As-S system prepared by spin-coating technique”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 219, 875–879, 2004. [Elsevier, 19 February 2004, available online 19 February 2004.]
    [135] 71. S.O. Kasap, Bud Fogal, M. Zahangir Kabir, Robert E. Johanson, and Stephen K. O'Leary, “Recombination of drifting holes with trapped electrons in stabilized a-Se photoconductors: Langevin recombination”, Applied Physics Letters, 84, 1991–1993, 2004.
    [134] 72. T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Frumar, V. Perina, A. Mackova, V. Hnatowitz, M. Vlcek, S. Kasap, “Amorphous films of Ag-As-S system prepared by spin-coating technique, preparation techniques and films physico-chemical properties”, Vacuum, 76, 191–194, 2004. [Elsevier, Available online 20 August 2004]
    [133] 73. T.W. Allen, M.M. Hawkeye, C.J. Haugen, R.G. DeCorby, J.N. Mullin (University of Alberta), D.T. Tonchev, K. Koughia, S.O. Kasap, “Photoluminescence measurements of Er-doped chalcogenide glasses”, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, 22, 921–924, 2004.
    [132] 74. O. Rubel, S.D. Baranovskii, I.P. Zvyagln, P. Thomas, S.O. Kasap, “Lucky-drift model for avalanche multiplication in amorphous semiconductors”, Physica Status Solidi C (Current Topics in Solid State Physics), 1, 1186–1193, 2004.
    [131] 75. K. Maeda (Miyazaki University), Y. Kai, T. Suginohara, H. Yokoyama, K. Sakai, T. Ikari, and S.O. Kasap, “Effect of three-stage isothermal annealing on the nucleation process in GeSe2 glasses”, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 14, 839–840, 2003. [Elsevier, available online 31 May 2005]
    [130] 76. Bud Fogal, G.S. Belev, K.V. Koughia, R.E. Johanson, and S.O. Kasap, “Dependence of charge-carrier ranges in stabilized a-Se on preparation conditions and alloying”, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 14, 841–842, 2003.
    [129] 77. D. Tonchev, S.O. Kasap, C.J. Haugen, R.G. Decorby, J.N. McMullin, and T. Allen, “Thermal and photoluminescence properties of Er2S3-doped (As2Se3)90(GaSe)5Ge5 glasses”, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 14, 851–852, 2003.
    [128] 78. Mehmet Günes, S.O. Kasap, R.E. Johanson, Q. Wang, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Conductance fluctuations in a-Si:H: Effects of alloying and device structure”, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 14, 693–696, 2003.
    [127] 79. Mehmet Günes, R.E. Johanson, S.O. Kasap, F. Finger, and A. Lambertz, “Conductance fluctuations in VHF-PECVD grown hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon thin films”, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 14, 731–732, 2003.
    [126] 80. M.Z. Kabir, S.O. Kasap, W. Zhao, and J.A. Rowlands, “Direct conversion x-ray sensors: Sensitivity, DQE and MTF”, IEE Proceedings: Circuits, Devices and Systems, 150, 258–266, 2003.
    [125] 81. K.S. Karim (Simon Fraser), A. Nathan (Waterloo), J.A. Rowlands (Toronto), and S.O. Kasap (University of Saskatchewan), “X-ray detector with on-pixel amplification for large area diagnostic medical imaging”, IEE Proceedings: Circuits, Devices and Systems, 150, 267–273, 2003.
    [124] 82. R.E. Johanson, M. Günes, and S.O. Kasap, “1/f noise in hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium alloys”, IEE Proceedings: Circuits, Devices and Systems, 150, 345–349, 2003.
    [123] 83. M. Zahangir Kabir and S.O. Kasap, “Modulation transfer function of photoconductive x-ray image detectors: Effects of charge carrier trapping”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 36, 2352–2358, 2003.
    [122] 84. E.V. Emelianova, (University of Leuven), N. Qamhieh, M. Brinza, G.J. Adriaenssens, S.O. Kasap, R.E. Johanson, and V.I. Arkhipov, “Defect levels and charge carrier photogeneration in amorphous selenium layers”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 326, 215–219, 2003. [Elsevier, 1 October 2003, available online 8 August 2003]
    [121] 85. D.T. Tonchev, C.J. Haugen, R.G. DeCorby, J.N. McMullin, and S.O. Kasap, “Thermal and photoluminescence properties of Er3+-doped (GaSe)x(As2Se3)1-x glasses”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 326, 364–368, 2003. [Elsevier, 1 October 2003, available online 5 August 2003]
    [120] 86. Mil. Vlcek, V. Zima, T. Wagner, L. Benes, S.O. Kasap, and M. Frumar, “Electrical conductivity of Agx(As40Se60)100-x bulk glasses”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 326 159–164, 2003. [Elsevier 1 October 2003, available online 1 August 2003]
    [119] 87. Travis G. Robinson, Ray G. DeCorby, James N. McMullin, Chris J. Haugen, Safa O. Kasap, Dancho Tonchev, “Strong Bragg gratings photoinduced by 633-nm illumination in evaporated As2Se3 thin films”, Optics Letters, 28, 459–461, 2003.
    [118] 88. Tümay O. Tümer (NOVA R&D, Inc.), Shi Yin, Victoria Cajipe, Henry Flores, James Mainprize, Gord Mawdsley, John A. Rowlands, Martin J. Yaffe, Eli E. Gordon, William J. Hamilton, David Rhiger, Safa O. Kasap, Paul Sellin, and Kanai S. Shah, “High-resolution pixel detectors for second generation digital mammography”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 497, 21–29, 2003. [Elsevier, 21 January 2003, available online 7 December 2002]
    [117] 89. S.O. Kasap, K.V. Koughia, B. Fogal, G. Belev and R.E. Johanson, “The Influence of Deposition and Alloying on the Electronic Properties of Amorphous Selenium", Semiconductors (American Institute of Physics), 37 (7), 789–794, 2003. (AIP Translatiom from Fizika I Tekhnika Poluprovodnikov, 37, 816–821, 2003.)
    [116] 90. M. Z. Kabir and S.O. Kasap, "DQE of photoconductive x-ray image detectors; application to a-Se", Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (Institute of Physics), 35, 2735–2743, 2002.
    [115] 91. S.O. Kasap (University of Saskatchewan) and J.A. Rowlands (University of Toronto), “Direct Conversion Flat Panel X-ray Image Sensors for Digital Radiography", Proceedings of IEEE, 90, 591–604, 2002.
    [114] 92. S.O. Kasap and J.A. Rowlands, “Direct-conversion flat-panel x-ray image detectors", IEE Proceedings on Circuits, Devices and System, 149, 85–96, 2002. (Invited Paper)
    [113] 93. C. Haugen, D.T. Tonchev, R.G. DeCorby, J.N. McMullin (University of Alberta), T. Allen, K. Maeda, T. Ikari (Miyazaki University), and S.O. Kasap, "Photoluminescence and thermal properties of Er-doped As-Se-Ga-Ge based glasses", Nonlinear Optics, 29, 549–555, 2002. (Taylor and Francis, UK, ISSN 1058-7268; journal merged into Journal of Modern Optics, 2003)
    [112] 94. A.C. van Popta, R.G. DeCorby, C.J. Haugen, T. Robinson and J.N. McMullin, "Photoinduced refractive index change in As2Se3 by 633nm illumination", Optics Express (Optical Society of America), 10 (5), 639–644, 2002.
    [111] 95. E.V. Emelianova, V.I. Arkhipov, S.O. Kasap, G.J. Adriaenssens (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Belgium), “Photogeneration efficiency in amorphous materials with long range potential fluctuations: application to a-Se. Nonlinear Optics, 29, 283–288, 2002. (Taylor and Francis, UK, ISSN 1058-7268; journal merged into Journal of Modern Optics, 2003)
    [110] 96. M. Zahangir Kabir and S. O. Kasap, “Sensitivity of x-ray photoconductors: Charge trapping and absorption-limited universal sensitivity curves”, Journal Vacuum Science and Technology A (American Institute of Physics, USA), 20, No. 3, 1082–1086, 2002.
    [109] 97. M. Zahangir Kabir and S. O. Kasap, “Charge collection and absorption-limited sensitivity of x-ray photconductors: Applications to a-Se and Hgl2”, Applied Physics Letters, 80(9), 1664–1666, 2002.
    [108] 98. R. E. Johanson, M. Günes and S.O. Kasap, “Noise in hydrogenated amorphous silicon", IEE Proceedings Circuits, Devices and Systems, 60, 68–74, 2002.
    [107] 99. R. E. Johanson and S.O. Kasap, “1/f noise of amorphous indium oxide", Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, 20, 1027–1029, 2002. [American Institute of Physics]
    [106] 100. D. Tonchev and S.O. Kasap, “Influence of Cl doping on the thermal properties of amorphous Se", Physics and Chemistry of Glasses (Society of Glass Technology), 43, 66–71, 2002.
    [105] 101. D. Tonchev and S. O. Kasap, “Effect of aging on glass transformation measurements by temperature modulated DSC", Materials Science & Engineering A, 328, 1–5, 2002. [Elsevier, May 2002, available online 25 March 2002]
    [104] 102. S.O. Kasap, John Rowlands , B. Fogal, M. Zahangir Kabir, G. Belev a, N. Sidhu, Brad Polischuk, Robert E. Johanson, “Progress in the science and technology of direct conversion a-Se x-ray sensors,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors), 299, 988-992, 2002. [Elsevier, April 2002, available online 17 January 2002]
    [103] 103. D. Tonchev, B. Fogal, G. Belev, R. E. Johanson, S. O. Kasap, “Properties of a-SbxSe1-x photoconductors,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors), 299, 998–1001, 2002. [Elsevier, April 2002, available online 29 January 2002]
    [102] 104. Bud Fogal, R.E. Johanson, George Belev, S. O’Leary, S. O. Kasap, “X-ray induced effects in stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors), 299, 993–997, 2002. [Elsevier, April, available online 17 January 2002]
    [101] 105. M. Günes, Robert E. Johanson, S. O. Kasap, Jeffrey C. Yang, Subhendu Guha, “Conductance fluctuations in undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium alloy thin films,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors), 299, 426–429, 2002 [Elsevier, April 2002, 24 December 2001]
    [100] 106. T. Wágner, A. Macková, V. Perina, E. Rauhala, A. Seppälä, S. O. Kasap, M. Frumar, Mir. Vlacek, and Mil. Vlãek (Pardubice University, Czech Republic), “The study of photo- and thermally-induced diffusion and dissolution of Ag in As30S70 amorphous films and its reaction products”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors), 299, 1028–1032, 2002. [Elsevier, April 2002, available online 17 January 2002]
    [99] 107. T. Wágner , Mir. Vlacek, S.O. Kasap, Mil. Vlãek, M. Frumar, “Changing the composition of Ag-As-S amorphous films using photo-induced solid state reaction”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solid, 284, 168–173, 2001.[Elsevier, May 2001, available online 22 May 2001]
    [98] 108. S. O. Kasap and D. Tonchev, “Glass transformation in vitreous As2Se3 studied by conventional and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry”, Journal of Materials Research (Materials Research Society), 16 (8), 2399–2407, 2001.
    [97] 109. T. Wagner, M. Frumar, Mir. Vlcek, S. O. Kasap, Mil. Vlcek, “The Tailoring of the Composition of Ag-International Journal of Inorganic Materials (Elsevier) 3 (6),497–501, 2007 [Elsevier, September 2001, available online 22 August 2001]
    [96] 110. S. O. Kasap, C. Haugen, B. Polischuk, E. V. Emelianova, and V. I. Arkhipov, “Field Dependence of the Hole Transit-Time Dispersion in As-Cl Stabilized Amorphous Selenium X-ray Photoconductors”, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology (Society of Imaging Science and Technology, formerly SPSE, USA) 45, No. 1, 30–36, 2001.
    [95] 111. T. Wágner, S.O. Kasap, Mir. Vlacek, M. Frumar, P. Nesladek, Mil. Vlacek, “The preparation of the Agx(As0.33S0.67)100-x amorphous films by optically induced solid state reaction and the film properties”, Applied Surface Science, 175, 117–122, 2001. [Elsevier, 15 May 2001, available online 7 May 2001]
    [94] 112. C. Juhasz, V. Gembala and S.O. Kasap, “Growth characteristics of vacuum coated thick a-Se films for device applications", Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Part A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, 18 (2), 665–670, 2000. [American Institute of Physics]
    [93] 113. S.O. Kasap, “X-ray Sensitivity of Photoconductors”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 33, 2853–2865, 2000.
    [92] 114. S.O. Kasap and J.A. Rowlands, “X-ray photoconductors and stabilized a-Se for direct conversion digital flat panel x-ray image detectors”, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 11, 179–19, 2000 (A 30 page review article on all types of x-ray photoconductors.)
    [91] 115. S.O. Kasap, D. Brinkhurst and C. Haugen, “Modeling of Photoinduced Discharge of Photoreceptors Under Pulsed Photoexcitation: Small and Large Signal Xerographic Time-of-Flight Analysis”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 33, 449–463, 2000.
    [90] 116. M. Vlcek, A.V. Stronski, A. Sklena, T. Wagner and S.O. Kasap, “Structure and imaging properties of As40S60-xSex glasses”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors), 266, 964–968, 2000. [Elsevier, May 2000, available online 26 July 2000]
    [89] 117. R. E. Johanson, M. Günes and S. O. Kasap, “1/f Noise in Doped and Undoped a-Si:H”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors), 266, 242–246, 2000. [Elsevier, May 2000, available online 24 July 2000]
    [88] 118. V. Boev, Maria Mitkova, E. lefterova, T. Wagner, S.O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, “Glass formation in the Ge-Se-AgI ternary”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors), 266, 867–871, 2000. [Elsevier, May 2000, available online 26 July 2000]
    [87] 119. M. Günes, R. E. Johanson and S. O. Kasap, “Conductance Fluctuations in Undoped, Intrinsic Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Films Prepared by Various Deposition Techniques”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors), 266, 242–246, 2000. [Elsevier, May 2000, available online 24 July 2000]
    [86] 120. Peled, R.E., Y. Zloof and S.O. Kasap, “Comparison of Excess 1/f Noise in trimmed and Untrimmed Thick Film Resistors”, International Journal of Electronics, 87, 1–9, 2000. [Taylor and Francis]
    [85] 121. V. Arkhipov and S.O. Kasap, “Is There Avalanche Multiplication in Amorphous Semiconductors?”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors), 266, 959–963, 2000. [Elsevier, May 2000, available online 26 July 2000]
    [84] 122. S.O. Kasap, C. Haugen, M. Nesdoly and J. A. Rowlands (University of Toronto), “Properties of Stabilized a-Se for Use in Flat Panel X-Ray Image Detectros”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors), 266, 1163–1167, 2000. [Elsevier, May 2000, available online 26 July 2000]
    [83] 123. S. O. Kasap and J. A. Rowlands, “Photoconductor selection for digital flat panel x-ray image detectors based on the dark current”, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Part A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, 18, 615–620, 2000. [American Institute of Physics]
    [82] 124. R. E. Johanson, S. O. Kasap, Franco Gaspari, Davit Yeghikyan, and Stefan Zukotynski, “1/f noise in p-type amorphous silicon”, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Part A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, 18, 661–664, 2000. [American Institute of Physics]
    [81] 125. T. Wagner, M. Frumar, S. O. Kasap, “Glass transformation, heat capacity and structure of Agx(As0.4Se0.6)100-x glasses studied by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 256, 160–164, 1999. [2 October 1999, available online 19 October 1999]
    [80] 126. M. Günes, R. E. Johanson, and S. O. Kasap, “1/f noise study of undoped intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films (a-Si:H)”, Physical Review B (American Physical Society), 60, 1477–1479, 1999.
    [79] 127. C. Juhasz, V. Gembala and S.O. Kasap, “Vacuum Deposited Amorphous Se-Te Photoconductor Films: Fractionation Effects and Charge Transport in Homogeneous Films” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 10, 633–641, 1999.
    [78] 128. D. Tonchev and S.O. Kasap, “Thermal Properties of SbxSe100-x Glasses Studied by Modulated temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 248, 28–36, 1999. [Elsevier, 1 June 1999, available online 28 May 1999]
    [77] 129. S.O. Kasap, T. Wagner, V. Aiyah, O. Krylouk. A, Bekirov and L. Tichy, “Amorphous chalcogenide Se1-x-yTexPy semiconducting alloys: thermal and mechanical properties” Journal of Material Science, 34, 3779–3787, 1999.
    [76] 130. C. Haugen, S.O. Kasap, J.A. Rowlands (University of Toronto), “Charge transport and electron-hole creation energy in stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 32, 200–207, 1999.
    [75] 131. R.E. Johanson and S.O. Kasap, “Effect of light exposure on 1/f noise in a-Si:H”, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Part A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, 17, 73–76, 1999. [American Institute of Physics]
    [74] 132. T. Wagner, E. Marquez, J. Fernandez-Pena, J.M. Gonzalez, P.J.S. Ewen and S.O. Kasap, “The Kinetics of the Photoinduced Solid State Chemical Reaction in Ag/As33S67 Bilayers and its Reaction Products”, Philosophical Magazine B, 79, 223–237, 1999.
    [73] 133. C. Haugen, S.O. Kasap, J.A. Rowlands (University of Toronto), “X-ray induced bulk space charge in stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors”, Journal of Applied Physics, 84, 5495–5501, 1998.
    [72] 134. T. Wagner, S.O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenar and A. Stronski, “Modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy studies of AsxS100-x glasses”, Journal of Material Science, 33, 5581–5588. 1998.
    [71] 135. T. Wagner, S.O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenar and A. Stronski, “Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry Experiments on (As0.33S0.67)100-xYx(Y = Te or I) Glasses”, Thin Solid Films, 317, 245–248, 1998. [Elsevier, April 1998, available online 26 February 1999]
    [70] 136. S.O. Kasap, D. Tonchev and T. Wagner, “Heat Capacity and Structure of Chalcogenide Glasses Studied by Temperature-Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry” Journal of Material Science Letters, 17, 1809–1811, 1998.
    [69] 137. T. Wagner, S.O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenar and A. Stronski, “The Structure of AsxS100-x Glasses Studies by Temperature-Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Raman Spectroscopy, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 227, 752–756, 1998. [Elsevier, May 1998, available online 30 November 1998]
    [68] 138. R.E. Johanson, S.O. Kasap, J. Rowlands, B. Polischuk, “Metallic Electrical Contacts to Stabilized Amorphous Selenium for Use in X-Ray Image Detectors”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 227, 1359–1362, 1998. [Elsevier, May 1998, available online 30 November 1998]
    [67] 139. S.O.Kasap, V. Aiyah, B. Polischuk (Noranda Advanced Materials), A. Baillie (Cancer Center), “X-Ray Sensitivity of Stabilized a-Se for X-Ray Imaging with Electrostatic Readout”, Journal of Applied Physics, 83, 2879–2887, 1998.
    [66] 140. J.A. Rowlands and S.O. Kasap, “Amorphous Semiconductors Usher-in-Digital X-Ray Imaging”, Physics Today (November issues), 50, 24–30, 1997.
    [65] 141. A. Peled, R.E. Johanson, Y. Zloof and S.O. Kasap, “1/f Noise in Bismuth Ruthenate Based Thick Film Resistors”, IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, CPMT-A, 20, 355–360. 1997.
    [64] 142. T. Wagner, S.O. Kasap, K. Maeda, “Glass Transformation, Heat Capacity and Structure of GexSe100-x Glasses Studied by Temperature Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry Experiments, Journal of Materials Research (Materials Research Society), 12, 1892–189, 1997.
    [63] 143. A. Peled, S.O. Kasap, R.E. Johanson and Y. Zloof, “Electrical Properties of Thick Film Resistors from Noise Measurements”, Journal of Material Science Letters, 16, 1184–1186, 1997.
    [62] 144. T. Wagner, S.O. Kasap and K. Petrov, “Temperature Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry Studies of the Structure of Bulk and Film GexAsyS60 Chalcogenide Glasses, Journal of Material Science, 32, 5889–5893, 1997.
    [61] 145. T. Wagner and S.O. Kasap, “Glass Transformation and Heat Capacity and Structure of AsxSe1-x Glasses Studied by Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning (MDSC) Experiments, Philosophical Magazine, 74, 667–680, 1996.
    [60] 146. S.O. Kasap, T. Wagner and K. Maeda, “Heat Capacity and the Structure of Chalcogenide Glasses by Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC), Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Letters, 35, L1116–L1119, 1996.
    [59] 147. R.E. Johanson, D. Scansen and S.O. Kasap, “1/f Conductance Noise in n-type a-Si:H", Philosophical Magazine, 73, 707–714, 1996.
    [58] 148. S.O. Kasap and B. Polischuk, “Application of the Interrupted Time-of-Flight Transient Photoconductivity technique to Investigate Sample Inhomogeneities: CI Doped Amorphous Se:Te and Se:As Films, Canadian Journal of Physics (NRC, Canada), 73, 96–100, 1995.
    [57] 149. C. Haugen and S.O. Kasap, "Langevin Recombination of Drifting Electrons and Holes in a-Se", Philosophical Magazine, 71 (1), 91–95, 1995.
    [56] 150. S.O. Kasap, D. Lakhanpal, C. Patzer, T. Mandziak and D.G. Fredlund, “Ultrasonic Measurements on a Porous Ceramic to Determine Soil Suction", Ultrasonics, 32 (5), 379–383, 1994. [Elsevier]
    [55] 151. B. Polischuk, S.O. Kasap, V. Aiyah and A. Baillie (Cancer Centre), “The Interrupted Field Time-of-Flight Transient Photoconductivity Technique for Studying Charge Transport and Trapping in High Resistivity Semiconductors", International Journal of Electronics, 76, 1029–1041 1994.
    [54] 152. S.O. Kasap and C. Juhasz, “Modelling of Photoinduced Discharge of Double Layer Photoreceptors: General Formulation and Small Signal Xerographic Time-of-Flight Analysis", Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (Institute of Physics), 27, 574–581, 1994.
    [53] 153. S. Yannacopoulos, S.O. Kasap, A. Hedayat and Anjali Verma, “Experimental Study of Phase Transformations in an Al-Zn-Mg-Zr Alloy: DSC and Hot Microhardness Measurements, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly (Canadian Metallurgical Society), 33, 51–60, 1994.
    [52] 154. D.S. Forsyth, S.O. Kasap, I. Wacker and S. Yannacopoulos, “Thermal Fatigue of Composites: Ultrasonic and SEM Evaluations", Transactions of the ASME (JEMT) (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.), 116, 113–120, 1994.
    [51] 155. S.O. Kasap and V. Mirchandani, “Method and Apparatus for Thermoacoustimetry: Applications to Polymers and Glasses", Measurement Science and Technology (Institute of Physics), 4, 1213–1218, 1993. [Formerly, J. Physics E: Scientific Instruments]
    [50] 156. B. Polischuk, S.O. Kasap and A. Baillie, “Study of charge carrier dispersion in chlorinated a-Se:0.3% As by the interrupted field time-of-flight technique", Applied Physics Letters, 63, 183–185, 1993.
    [49] 157. V. Aiyah, S.O. Kasap, B. Polischuk and A. Baillie (Cancer Centre), “Doped Amorphous Selenium, Based Photoreceptors for Electroradiography: Determination of X-Ray Sensitivity", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: Special Issue on Amorphous Semiconductors (North Holland-Elsevier), 164, 777–780, 1993.
    [48] 158. D. Scansen and S.O. Kasap, “Excess Noise, Gain and Dark Current in Ge Avalanche Photodiodes”, Canadian Journal of Physics (NRC), 70, 1070–1075, 1992.
    [47] 159. S.O. Kasap, B. Polischuk, V. Aiyah, A. Bekirov, T. Wagner and L. Tichy, “Electrophotographic and Charge Transport Measurements on Amorphous Semiconductor Films of Se-Te-P”, Canadian Journal of Physics (NRC), 70, 1118–1124, 1992.
    [46] 160. S.O. Kasap, S. Yannacopoulos, V. Mirchandani and J. Hildebrandt, “Ultrasonic Evaluation of Thermal Fatigue of Composites”, Transactions of the ASME: JEMT (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.), 114, 132–13, 1992.
    [45] 161. S.O. Kasap, A. Bhattacharyya, Z. Liang, “Decay of Electrostatic Surface Potential on Insulators via Charge Injection, Transport and Trapping”, Japan Journal of Applied Physics, 31, 72–80, 1992.
    [44] 162. S.O. Kasap, “Charge Carrier Deep Trapping Kinetics in High Resistivity Semiconductors”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 25, 83–93, 1992.
    [43] 163. V. Aiyah, A. Baillie (Saskatoon Cancer Centre), B. Polischuk, A. Bekirov and S.O. Kasap, “X-ray Sensitivity of Halogenated a-Se:As Photoreceptors for Electroaradiography", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: Special Issue on Amorphous Semiconductor Science and Technology (North Holland-Elsevier), 137, 1337–1340, 1991.
    [42] 164. S.O. Kasap, V. Aiyah, B. Polischuk, Z. Liang and A. Bekirov, “Photoinduced Discharge Characteristics of Xerographic Photoreceptors: Theory and Experiment", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: Special Issue on Amorphous Semiconductor Science and Technology (North Holland-Elsevier), 137, 1329–1333, 1991.
    [41] 165. B. Polischuk, S.O. Kasap, V. Aiyah, D. Scansen and A. Bekirov, "Charge Carrier Trapping in Chalcogenide Semiconductors", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Special Issue on Amorphous Semiconductor Science and Technology (North Holland-Elsevier), 137, 943–946, 1991.
    [40] 166. J. Tang, S. Sokhansanj, S. Yannacopoulos, S.O. Kasap, "Specific Heat Capacity of Lentil Seeds by Differential Scanning Calorimetry", Transactions of the ASAE (Am. Soc. Agric. Eng.), 34, 517–522, 1991.
    [39] 167. S.O. Kasap, C. Juhasz and M. Baxendale, “Xerographic Properties of a-Se:Te Photoconductors", Transactions of IEEE on Industry Applications (IEEE), 27, 620–626, 1991.
    [38] 168. B. Polischuk and S.O. Kasap, “A High Voltage Interrupted-Field Time-of-Flight Transient Photoconductivity Apparatus", Measurement Science and Technology (Institute of Physics), 2, 75–80, 1991. [Formerly, J. Physics E: Scientific Instruments]
    [37] 169. B. Polischuk, S.O. Kasap, V. Aiyah, A. Baillie, M.A. Abkowitz (Xerox Corp., USA), "Measurement of Mobility-Lifetime Products in Amorphous Semiconductors", Canadian Journal of Physics (National Research Council), 69, 361–369, 1991.
    [36] 170. S.O. Kasap, V. Aiyah, B. Polischuk, A. Bhattacharyya, Z. Liang, "Theoretical and Experimental Study of Deep Trapping Kinematics of Charge Carriers in Amorphous Semiconductors", Physical Review B (Am. Phys. Soc.), 43 (8), 6691–6705, 1991.
    [35] 171. S.O. Kasap, V. Aiyah, A. Baillie (Cancer Centre), A. Leiga (Xerox Medical Systems), “X-ray Induced Hole Trapping in Electroradiographic Plates", Journal of Applied Physics, 69, 7087–7096, 1991.
    [34] 172. S.O. Kasap, V. Aiyah, B. Polischuk and M.A. Abkowitz (Xerox Corp., USA), "Determination of Deep Hole Capture Cross Section in a-Se via Xerographic and Interrupted Field Time-of-Flight Techniques", Philosophical Magazine Letters, 62 (5), 377–382, 1990.
    [33] 173. S.O. Kasap, B. Polischuk and D. Dodds, "An Interrupted Field Time-of-Flight Technique in Transient Photoconductivity Measurements", Review of Scientific Instruments (American Institute of Physics), 61, 2080–2087, 1990. [Selected as a Milestone Paper by SPIE and republished in their Milestone Series, Volume MS56, as a chapter in a special monograph entitled Photoconductivity, ed by N.V. Joshi, SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, 1992, ISBN: 0-8194-0987-1; 0-8194-0988-X]
    [32] 174. S.O. Kasap, A. Viswanath, S. Yannacopoulos, “Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Amorphous Selenium Films in the Glass Transformation Region, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (Institute of Physics), 23, 553–561, 1990.
    [31] 175. S.O. Kasap and S. Yannacopoulos, “Apparent Activation Energy of Glass Transformation in Vitreous As2Se3 via Heating and Cooling DSC Scans", Physics and Chemistry of Glasses (Journal of the Society of Glass Technology), 31, 71–74, 1990.
    [30] 176. S. Yannacopoulos and S.O. Kasap, “Glass Transformation Phenomena in Bulk and Film Amorphous Selenium via DSC Heating and Cooling Scans", Journal of Materials Research (Materials Research Society), 5, 789–794, 1990.
    [29] 177. S.O. Kasap, B. Polischuk, Viswanath Aiyah, S. Yannacopoulos, “Drift Mobility Relaxation in a-Se", Journal of Applied Physics (American Institute of Physics), 67, 1918–1922, 1990.
    [28] 178. S.O. Kasap, Viswanath Aiyah, B. Polischuk and S. Yannacopoulos, “Thermal, Mechanical and Electrical Relaxation Phenomena in a-Se Films", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors), 114, 49–51, 1989.
    [27] 179. S.O. Kasap, B. Polischuk, D. Dodds and S. Yannacopoulos, "Charge Trapping Studies in a-Se Films via Interrupted Field TOF Technique", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors), 114, 106–108, 1989.
    [26] 180. S.O. Kasap and S. Yannacopoulos, "Charge Transport in Halogenated Amorphous Se1-xTex Photoreceptor Films", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issues on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors), 115, 51–53, 1989.
    [25] 181. S. Yannacopoulos, S.O. Kasap and Viswanath Aiyah, “Thermomechanical Properties of Amorphous Semiconductor Photoreceptor Films of As2Se3", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Special Issue on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors), 114, 54–56, 1989.
    [24] 182. S.O. Kasap, “Transient Photoconductivity Measurements on Halogenated a-Se1-xTex Photoconductors", Canadian Journal of Physics, 67, 1053–1064, 1989.
    [23] 183. S.O. Kasap and S. Yannacopoulos, “Mechanical and Thermal Properties of the Glassy Semiconductor Chlorinated Se0.997As0.003 Used as an X-ray Imaging Material", Canadian Journal of Physics, 67, 686–693, 1989.
    [22] 184. S. Yannacopoulos and S.O. Kasap, “Scientific Instrumentation for Hot Microhardness Measurements", Review of Scientific Instruments, (American Institute of Physics), 60, (8), 1321-1328, 1989.
    [21] 185. S.O. Kasap, S. Yannacopoulos and P. Gundappa, “Mechanical Properties of the Semiconducting Glass a-Se in the Tg Region via Thermomicrohardness Measurements", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 111, 82- 90, 1989.
    [20] 186. S.O. Kasap and S. Yannacopoulos, “Kinetics of Structural Relaxations in the Glassy Semiconductor a-Se", Journal of Materials Research (Material Research Society, USA), 4 (4) 893-905, 1989. [July-August]
    [19] 187. S.O. Kasap and S. Yannacopoulos, “Method and Apparatus for Thermal Microhardness Analysis (THA)", Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments (Institute of Physics), 21 (October), 932-935, 1988. [Formerly, Journal of Scientific Instruments]
    [18] 188. S. Yannacopoulos and S.O. Kasap, “Thermomicrohardness Analysis of Glassy Materials", Journal of Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, 13, 53-58, 1988.
    [17] 189. S.O. Kasap, R.P.S. Thakur and D. Dodds, “Method and Apparatus for Interrupted Transit Time Transient Photoconductivity Measurements", Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments (Institute of Physics), 21 (December), 1195-1202, 1988.(Formerly, Journal of Scientific Instruments) [Selected as a Milestone Paper by SPIE and republished in their Milestone Series, Volume MS56, as a chapter in a special monograph entitled Photoconductivity, ed by N.V. Joshi, SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, 1992, ISBN: 0-8194-0987-1; 0-8194-0988-X]
    [16] 190. S.O. Kasap, “Dark Decay of Electrostatic Surface Potential on Dielectrics via Bulk Space Charge Buildup", Journal of Electrostatics, 22 (February), 66-90, 1988. [Elsevier]
    [15] 191. S.O. Kasap, “Inverted Xerographic Depletion Discharge Mechanism for the Dark Decay of Electrostatic Surface Potential on Amorphous Semiconductors", Journal of Applied Physics (American Institute of Physics) 64, 450-453, 1988.
    [14] 192. S.O. Kasap, “Demarcation Energy Concept in the Analysis of Charge Carrier Emission Kinetics from Deep Mobility Gap States in Amorphous Semiconductors", Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (Institute of Physics), 21, 841–844, 1988.
    [13] 193. S.O. Kasap, M. Winnicka and S. Yannacopoulos, “Hardness of Polymeric Glasses in the TG Region", Journal Materials Research (Materials Research Society), 3, 609–612, 1988. [July-August]
    [12] 194. C. Juhasz, S.M. Vaezi-Nejad and S.O. Kasap, "Xerographic Properties of Single- and Double Layer Photoreceptors Based on Amorphous Selenium-Tellurium Alloys", Journal of Materials Science, 22, 2569–2582, 1987.
    [11] 195. S.O. Kasap and C. Juhasz, “Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Single- and Double Layer Amorphous Se1-xTex Photoreceptors", Journal of Materials Science Letters, 6, 397–400, 1987.
    [10] 196. S.O. Kasap, M. Baxendale and C. Juhasz, "Evidence for Field- Assisted Thermal Emission of Holes from Deep Mobility Gap States in Amorphous Semiconductors from Xerographic Dark Discharge Measurements", Journal of Applied Physics (American Institute of Physics), 62, 171–173, 1987.
    [9] 197. S.O. Kasap and C. Juhasz, “Transient Photoconductivity Probing of Negative Space Charge Evolution in Halogenated Amorphous Selenium Films", Solid State Communications, 63, 553–556, 1987. [Elsevier]
    [8] 198. S.O. Kasap and C. Juhasz, “Kinematical Transformations in Amorphous Selenium Alloys Used in Xerography", Journal of Materials Science, 21, 1329–1340, 1986.
    [7] 199. C. Juhasz, M. Vaezi-Nejad and S.O. Kasap, "Interface Hole Traps in Double-Layer Amorphous Semiconductor (Se1-xTex) photoreceptor Devices", Semiconductor Science and Technology (Institute of Physics), 1, 302–304, 1986.
    [6] 200. C. Juhasz, S.M. Vaezi-Nejad and S.O. Kasap, “Drift Mobility Measurements on Amorphous Se Based Photoreceptors", Journal of Imaging Science (SPSE, USA), 29, 144–148, 1985.
    [5] 201. S.O. Kasap and C. Juhasz, "Charge Transport in Chlorine Doped Amorphous Se:Te Xerographic Photoreceptors", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 72, 23–37, 1985.
    [4] 202. S.O. Kasap and C. Juhasz, “Theory of Thermal Analysis of Non-Isothermal Crystallisation Kinetics of Amorphous Solids", Journal of the Chemical Society: Faraday Transactions 2 (Royal Society of Chemistry), 81, 811–831, 1985.
    [3] 203. C. Juhasz and S.O. Kasap, “Charge Transport in Amorphous Xerographic Photoreceptor Films of Se:As", Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (Institute of Physics), 18, 721–729, 1985.
    [2] 204. S.O. Kasap and C. Juhasz, “Time-of-Flight Drift Mobility Measurements on Chlorine Doped Amorphous Selenium Films", Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (Institute of Physics), 18, 703–720, 1985.
    [1] 205. S.O. Kasap and C. Juhasz, "Charge Transport in Selenium Based Amorphous Xerographic Photoreceptors", Photographic Science and Engineering (SPSE, USA), 26, 239–244, 1982

    Conference Publications

    [13] M. Zahangir Kabir, M. Yunus and S. O. Kasap, 2005, "THE EFFECTS OF LARGE SIGNALS ON CHARGE COLLECTION IN PHOTOCONDUCTIVE X-RAY IMAGE DETECTORS", Proceedings of IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, May 1-4, Saskatoon, Canada, pp. 0208-0210. [PDF]
    [12] Daniel DeForrest, Robert E. Johanson and Safa O. Kasap, 2005, "PHOTOINDUCED DICHROISM IN THIN FILMS OF AMORPHOUS As2Se3", Proceedings of IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, May 1-4, Saskatoon, Canada, pp. 1551-1553. [PDF]
    [11] Invited lecture entitled "Optoelectronic Materials: Electrophotography", 22-26 February 1993, University of Greenwich, London, England.
    [10] Invited lecture entitled "Photoreceptor Research
    [9] M. Zahangir Kabir, M. Yunus, and S. O. Kasap, "Dependence of x-ray sensitivity of direct conversion x-ray detectors on x-ray exposure and exposure history" in the SPIE Proceedings on Medical Imaging, SPIE Medical Imaging Conference, San Diego, February 2004. SPIE Proceedings Volume 5368
    [8] R.E. Johanson, M. Gunes, S.O. Kasap, 2003. "1/f Noise in Amorphous Silicon and Silicon-Germanium Alloys", Fluctuations and Noise 2003, Santa Fe, NM, June, Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 5112, ed. M.B. Weissman, N.E. Israeloff, and A.S. Kogan, pp. 61-66. (Invited Paper).
    [7] M. Gunes, R.E. Johanson, S.O. Kasap, J.C. Yang and S. Guha, 2001. "1/f Noise in Undoped Hydrogenated a-Si and a-Si:Ge Alloys", in the Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Noise in Physical Systems and 1/f Noise Fluctuations, Gainsville, Florida, October 2001. (World Scientific Publishing Co.), pp. 85-90. Invited Paper.
    [6] R.E. Johanson, M. Gunes and S.O. Kasap, 2000. "Conductance Fluctuations in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon" in Materials for Information Technology in the New Millenium: The Proceedings of the Eleventh International School in Condensed Matter Physics, Varna, September, Ed J.M. Marshall, A.G. Petrov, A. Vavrek, D. Nesheva, D. Dimova-Malinovska and J.M. Maud, pp. 118-125. Invited Paper.
    [5] S.O. Kasap and J.A. Rowlands (Univ. of Toronto), 1999. "X-Ray Photoconductors for Digital Flat Panel X-ray Image Detectors", Invited Paper and the Plenary Barisov Lecture, in the Proc. Of the Tenth International School in Condensed Matter Physics, Varna, September 1998 (World Scientific Publishing Co., pp. 13-20.
    [4] M. Gunes, R.E. Johanson, S.O. Kasap, 1999. "Coplanar Conductance Fluctuations in Undoped Intrinsic Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Films", in the Proc. Of the Tenth International School in Condensed Matter Physics, Varna, September 1998 (World Scientific Publishing Co., pp. 233-236.
    [3] J. A. Rowlands (Univ. of Toronto) and S.O. Kasap, "New Directions in X-ray Imaging", Invited paper in the Proc. of the Sixth International Symposium on the Uses of Selenium and Tellurium, Scottsdale, AZ, May 1998. Ed. Yves Palmieri (STDA, Grimbergen, Belgium, 1999) pp. 25-35.
    [2] S.O. Kasap, 1999. "Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC) Experiments on Chalcogenide Glasses", invited Paper in the Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on the Uses of Selenium and Tellurium, Scottsdale, AZ, May 1998. Ed. Yves Palmieri (STDA, Grimbergen, Belgium, 1999), pp. 223-232.
    [1] S.O. Kasap, 1998. "Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC) Experiments on Chalcogenide Glasses", invited paper in the Turkish Journal Physics from invited review paper presented at the Turkish Physics and Statistics Conference, Istanbul, July 1998.

    Books / Chapters in Books

    [36] MCGRAW-HILL TEXTBOOK
    [35] S.O. Kasap, Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA, ISBN: 0073104647, 2005. 874 pages. (Published as a textbook and has been adopted as a course textbook in various major universities worldwide.) International Student Edition ISBN: 007-124458-1. (htpp://ElectronicMaterials.Usask.Ca). Reprinted twice.
    [34] S.O. Kasap, Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, Chicago, IL, ISBN: 0072456361, 2002. 745 pages. Reprinted four times.
    [33] S.O. Kasap, Principles of Electrical Engineering Materials and Device, McGraw-Hill, Chicago, IL, ISBN: 0-256-16173-9, January 1997; Second printing August 1997; International Student Edition, ISBN: 0-07-114446-3; August 1997; Revised Edition ISBN 0072356448), 700 pages.
    [32] McGraw-Hill Textbook Translations
    [31] Korean Translation, 2002, ISBN: 8988825489 and 2000, ISBN: 8984540013
    [30] Greek Translation, 2004, ISBN: 960753056X (Translation by John Xanthakis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece), 2004. Greek title is "ΑΡΧΕΣ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΝΙΚΩΝ ΥΛΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΔΙΑΤΑΞΕΩΝ" (http://www.papasotiriou.gr)
    [29] Chinese Translation, to appear in 2008. (In production by McGraw-Hill Education Asia)
    [28] PRENTICE HALL TEXTBOOK
    [27] S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Prentice Hall, Upper saddle River, New Jersey, USA, 2000, ISBN: 0-201-610-87-6. (http://photonics.usask.ca/)
    [26] Prentice Hall Textbook Translations
    [25] Chinese Translation, 2003, ISBN: 986-7594-35-5
    [24] Korean Translation, 2003, ISBN: 8986044560
    [23] BOOKS AND HANBOOKS EDITED
    [22] S.O. Kasap and P. Capper, Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials, Heidelberg, Germany, 2006. 55 Chapters and 1400 pages.
    [21] EDITED SPECIAL ISSUES OF JOURNALS
    [20] Safa Kasap and Jamal Deen, Guest Editors of "Selected Topics on Electronic Noise", IEE Proceedings on Circuits, Devices, and Systems (The Institution of Electrical Engineers), Vol. 149, Number 1, February 2002.
    [19] Safa Kasap, Guest Editor of "Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors: Special Issue", IEE Proceedings on Circuits, Devices, and Systems (The Institution of Electrical Engineers), Vol. 150, Number 4 ,August 2003.
    [18] CHAPTERS
    [17] S.O. Kasap, K. Koughia, Harry E. Ruda and Robert E. Johanson, " Electrical Conduction in Metals and Semiconductors", in The Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials, ed. S.O. Kasap and P. Capper, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2006, Chapter 2.
    [16] S. O. Kasap, K. Koughia, Jai Singh, Harry Ruda and S. K. O'Leary, " Optical Properties: Fundamentals & Characterization", in The Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials, ed. S.O. Kasap and P. Capper, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2006, Chapter 3
    [15] S. O. Kasap, D. Tonchev, "Thermal Properties and Thermal Analysis: Fundamentals, Experimental Techniques And Applications ", in The Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials, ed. S.O. Kasap and P. Capper, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2006, Chapter 19
    [14] Z. Kabir, S.O. Kasap, and J.A. Rowlands, " Photoconductors for X-ray Image Detectors ", in The Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials, ed. S.O. Kasap and P. Capper, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2006, Chapter 48
    [13] W.C. Tan, K. Koughia, Jai Singh, and S.O. Kasap, "Fundamental Optical Properties of Materials I", in Optical Properties of Condensed Matter and Applications ed. J. Singh, Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 2006. Chapter 1
    [12] K. Koughia, Jai Singh, S. O. Kasap and H. Ruda, "Fundamental Optical Properties of Materials II" in Optical Properties of Condensed Matter and Applications ed. J. Singh, Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 2006. Chapter 2
    [11] Safa Kasap, J A Rowlands, Kenkichi Tanioka, Arokia Nathan, "Applications of Disordered Semiconductors in Modern Electronics: Selected Examples" in Charge Transport in Disordered Solids with Applications in Electronics, ed. S. Baranovski, Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 2006
    [10] S. O. Kasap, Chapter entitled: "Optoelectronics", in The Optics Encyclopedia (WILEY-VCH, Germany, 2004), Vol. 4, pp. 1–48. (Edited by T. G. Brown, K. Creath, H. Kogenlnik, M.A. Kriss, J. Schmit, M.J. Weber.)
    [9] S.O. Kasap, Chapter 9: "Photoreceptors - The Chalcogenides", in The Handbook of Imaging Materials, Second Edition, (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), 329–368. This is a major reference book for the imaging industry.
    [8] S.O. Kasap, Chapter 8: "Photoreceptors - The Selenium Alloys", in The Handbook of Imaging Materials (Marcel Dekker, New York, July 1991), 329–377. This is a major reference book for the imaging industry.
    [7] S. O. Kasap and D. Tonchev, “Glass Transformation Studies of Vitreous As2Se3 by Temperature-Modulated DSC”, Materials Characterization by Dynamic and Modulated Thermal Analytical Techniques, Ed. A.T. Riga and L. Judovits, ASTM 1402, Standard Technical Publication of the ASTM, West Conshocken, PA, USA, vol. 1402, 81–86, 2001.
    [6] S.O. Kasap and J.A. Rowlands (University of Toronto), “Amorphous Chalcogenide Films in Imaging Technologies” in Insulating and Semiconducting Glasses Ed. P. Boolchand (World Scientific Publishing, 2000; ISBN 981-02-3673-5), Ch. XII.B.
    [5] S. Yannacopoulos, J. Hildebrandt, S. O. Kasap and V. Mirchandani, “Evaluation of Thermally Fatigued Composites using Ultrasonic Analysis,” Composite Structures and Materials (Elsevier Science Publishers LTD., New York, 1992), 149–156.
    [4] S. Yannacopoulos, J.R. Hildebrandt, and S. O. Kasap, “Thermal Fatigue of Fiber Reinforced Composites” in Advanced Composites in Emerging Technologies. (AMATEC Publications, Greece, 1991), 252–268.
    [3] Two papers below were selected as milestone papers by SPIE and republished in a special monograph book entitled “Photoconductivity” in the SPIE Milestone Series MS56
    [2] S.O. Kasap, B. Polischuk and D. Dodds, “An Interrupted Field Time-of-Flight Technique in Transient Photoconductivity Measurements” in Photoconductivity, SPIE Milestone Series, Volume MS56, edited by N.V. Joshi, published by SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, USA, 1992 (ISBN: 0-8194-0987-1 and 0-8194-0988-X) pp. 208-215 [Originally published in Rev. Sci. Instrum., 61, 2081–2089, 1990.]
    [1] S.O. Kasap, R.P.S. Thakur and D. Dodds, “Method and Apparatus for Interrupted Transit Time Transient Photoconductivity Measurements” in Photoconductivity, SPIE Milestone Series, Volume MS56, edited by N.V. Joshi, published by SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, USA, 1992 (ISBN: 0-8194-0987-1 and 0-8194-0988-X) pp. 231-238 [Originally published in J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., 21, 1195–1202, 1988.]

    Honours and Awards

    D.Sc., 1996, University of London, for distinct contributions to Materials Science in Electrical Engineering.

    Fellow, SPIE, The International Society of Optical Engineering, formerly, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), November 2009 for contributions to x-ray photoconductors, detectors and optoelectronic glasses

    Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineering (FCAE), awarded May 2009, for outstanding contributions to electronic devices, and electrical engineering education (Induction on July 13, 2009)

    Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada (FRSC), awarded November 2008, for pioneering contributions to electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices, from fundamental principles to advances in direct conversion x-ray image detectors for medical imaging.

    Fellow, The Society of Glass Technology (FSGT), for contributions to the science and technology of chalcogenide glasses. Awarded March 2009.

    Fellow of the City and Guilds London Institute (FCGI), October 2008, for contributions to engineering education and outreach. The City and Guilds London Institute is one of the oldest engineering institutions for technical education in the UK, and was founded by a Royal Charter in 1900.

    Fellow of the Engineering Institute of Canada (FEIC), awarded December 2007, for outstanding contributions to engineering in Canada (Awarded to twenty outstanding Canadian engineers every year over all disciplines in the whole of Canada. Only 0.1% of all engineers in all disciplines can receive this award. The award is equivalent to FREng in the UK.) For pioneering contributions to electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices, from fundamental principles to advances in direct conversion x-ray image detectors for medical imaging.

    Fellow of the American Physical Society (FAPS), awarded November 2007, for contributions to the science and technology of amorphous semiconductors and devices; in particular, for advances in x-ray photoconductors used in direct conversion flat panel x-ray image detectors (Only 0.5% of members can become fellows every year)

    Fellow of the Australian Institute of Physics (FAIP), January 2008. I was the Co-Chair of the ICOOPMA (International Conference on Optical, Optoelectronic Properties of Materials and Applications) Conference held in Australia in 2006, and was nominated by two Australian fellows in 2007 for my contributions to Australian physics.

    Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (FIET, formerly the Institution of Electrical Engineers), awarded 1996, for contributions to xerography

    Fellow of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining (FIM3), formerly, the Institute of Materials), awarded 1995, for contributions to the characterization of materials
    Fellow of the Institute of Physics (FInstP), awarded in February 1993, for contributions to physics of electrophotography

    Research Grants

    Graduate Students

    Graduate Students

    Sujata Panigrahi
    Sujata Panigrahi, MSc student, "Eu and Sm doped ZBLAN glasses as scintillators and storage phosphors for x-ray imaging applications", since 2006.
    Gokul Soundararajan
    Gokul Soundararajan, MSc student, "Nd3+ and other rare earth doped chalcogenide glasses for optoelectronics applications", since 2006.
    Thomas Meyer
    Thomas Meyer, MSc student, "Excess noise in photoconductors and its effect on the DQE of direct conversion x-ray detectors", since 2006.
    Isha Dash
    Isha Dash, MSc student, "Preparation and characterization of n-type Se:As glass layers for use as blocking layers in a-Se x-ray detectors", since 2006.
    Go Okuda
    Go Okuda, MSc student, "Rare-earth-doped wide bandgap chalcogenide glasses and fluorozirconate glasses as scintillators and phosphors for image detectors", since 2007.
    Matthew Kowalshyn
    Matthew Kowalshyn, MSc student, "Photoinduced dichroism in thin As2Se3 glass films for photonics applications, since 2005.
    Bud Fogal
    Bud Fogal, PhD student, "Dependence of the electrical properties and performance of a-Se x-ray detectors on accumulated x-ray exposure and temperature", since 2005.
    Joel Frey
    Joel Frey, PhD student, "The dark current in a-Se based x-ray photoconductors with, n-i, p-i and p-i-n detector structures", since 2007.
    Chris Allen
    Chris Allen, MSc student, "Relaxation of electrical properties of doped Se:As glassy photoconductors", since 2005.

    Former Graduate Students

    Mark Nesdoly, Ph.D.
    "X-Ray Sensitivity and X-Ray Induced Charge Transport Changes in Stabilized a-Se Films", March 2000.
    Chris Haugen, Ph.D.
    "Charge Transport in Stabilized a-Se Films Used in X-Ray Image Detector Applications", September 1998.

    M.Sc.
    "Charge Carrier Recombination in Amorphous Selenium Films", September 1994 (convocated May 1995).
    Donald Brinkhurst, M.Sc.
    "Modeling of Photo-Induced Discharge in Amorphous Semiconductors", January 1998.
    Reza Tanha, M.Sc.
    "Electron and Hole Transport in Stabilized A-Se for X-ray Imaging", December 1997.
    Donald Scansen, Ph.D.
    "Excess Noise in N-Type Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon", August 1996.

    M.Sc.
    "Excess Noise Studies in Avalanche Phoitodiodes", June 1991
    V. Aiyah, Ph.D.
    "Electrophotographic Properties and X-ray Sensitivity of Selenium Alloys for Electrophotographys", September 1995 (co-supervised with Dr. A. Baillie).

    M.Sc.
    "Study of Amorphous Selenium Alloys for Medical Imaging Applications", September 1990
    Ray Decorby, M.Sc.
    "Frequency Response Characterization of GaAs MSM Photodetector Arrays: Test Facility and Experimental Results", September 1994 (convocated May 1995).
    Brad Polischuk, Ph.D.
    "Interrupted Field Time-of-Flight and its Applications", December 1993.

    M.Sc.
    "Charge Transport and Trapping Studies in Amorphous Chalcogenide Semiconductor Films", August 1990
    V. Mirchandani, M.Sc.
    "Method and Apparatus for Thermoacoutic (TAA) Measurements", January 1991.

    Teaching

    EE823
    Solid State Electronic Devices

    Semiconductor science. Extrinsic semiconductors. Continuity equation and applications. Photoconductivity. Principles of semiconductor devices and device models (pn junction, BJT, FET).

    http://www.engr.usask.ca/classes/EE/823/
    EE829
    Selected Topics from Optical Electronics and Imaging Science

    Basic theory emphasizing on relationships between electronic structure and optical properties of solids. Einstein A and B coefficients for stimulated emission. Gas lasers. Solid state lasers. Photodetectors. Basic concepts in optical imaging. Diffraction. Holography.

    http://www.engr.usask.ca/classes/EE/829/

    Research Projects

    Research Projects

    Safa Kasap's research interests cover electronic materials, electrophotography, photodetectors, X-ray image detectors, device modelling, characterization of electrical noise in semiconductor devices and measurement science and technology, with more than 200 refereed journal papers in these fields. His specialty area covers amorphous semiconductors and their applications in electronic and imaging devices, and glasses and galss ceramics for optoelectronics and photonics.

    A. Amorphous Semiconductors as X-ray Photoconductors for X-ray Medical Imaging Applications, with Professor John Rowlands, Sunnybrook Hospital (University of Toronto) and Anrad Corporation (Montreal). Sunnybrook Hospital, Anrad and NSERC joint funding. The pioneering work carried out over the last 12 years in my group, in collaboration with Dr. John Rowlands (Chief Medical Physicist, Sunnybrook Hospital, University of Toronto), sponsored by Anrad Corporation, lead to the development and commercialization of digital a-Se based x-ray image detectors. There are five major companies that are currently manufacturing and marketing these detectors: Anrad in Canada (our sponsoring company), Hologic in the USA, Siemens in Europe, and Shimadzu and Toshiba in Japan. The detectors have the best resolution (MTF) and the highest DQE compared with any other detector for mammography in the market. [Safa Kasap and John Rowlands, “Direct Conversion Flat Panel X-ray Image Sensors for Digital Radiography", Proceedings of IEEE, 90, 591 - 604, 2002. (Invited)]

    B. X-ray Image Detector Modeling for Image Enhancement: Numerical Techniques and Monte Carlo Simulations, with Anrad. Anrad Corporation (Montreal) and NSERC funding. Modeling of sensitivity (collected charge per unit incident radiation), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), modulation transfer function (MTF) as a function of spatial frequency, and their relationship to fundamental semiconductor properties, such as charge carrier drift mobility, trapping time, radiation damage etc.. The aim is to use the model of the detector in software image correction and image enhancement. The first stage of the research on the "x-ray ghosting model" has been already incorporated into the software of the commercial Anrad detector, and we are in the second phase of expanding the software correction.

    C. EXAFS and XANES Characterization of Se-As Glasses for Optoelectronics using the Synchrotron (The Canadian Light Source), with Professor Alex Moewes, Physics. NSERC Strategic funding. We are currently examining the fine structure of various doped Se-As glasses to understand the properties of these glasses; especially the effects on the structure as the glass composition is changed, and various dopants are introduced.

    D. Excess Electronic Noise in Amorphous Semiconductor Devices, with Anrad. Anrad and NSERC funding. Measurement and characterization of noise in photoconductors above thermal (Johnson) and shot noise. Excess noise can cause serious reduction in the image detector's DQE. Since today's modern digital direct conversion x-ray image detectors are still relatively new, not much is known about the excess noise in the x-ray photoconductor and how it affects the overall DQE. The present models simply assign a dark current shot noise for the source of noise from the x-ray photoconductor, which we have shown to be not correct.

    E. Avalanche Multiplication in Amorphous Semiconductors and Its Application to Ultrasensitive Image Sensors, with Professor John Rowlands, Sunnybrook Hospital (University of Toronto), Professor Sergei Baranovski, Philipps University Marburg (Germany), and Dr. Kenkichi Tanioka (Vice President, NHK Corporation, Japan). NSERC funding. In the last five years we have been examining avalanche multiplication in amorphous semiconductors, in particular multilayer doped a-Se layers. The HARP video tube based on avalanche multiplication in a-Se at very high fields is currently commercialized in high definition TV video tubes in NHK, and can even capture star light images. It has the highest sensitivity of any image sensor to date for use in capturing real time images. Our research objectives have been two fold. Firstly, to provide an explanation and a model for impact ionization in amorphous semiconductors and, secondly, to develop new technologies to enable the construction of high gain all solid state image sensors.

    F. Rare Earth Doped Fluorozirconate (ZBLAN) Glasses for Optoelectronics: Scintillators and Phosphors for Medical Imaging. (In collaboration with Dr. Andy Edgar, New Zealand and Professor Heinz Von Seggern, Darmstadt University, Germany). NSERC funding. These are novel glasses (glass-ceramics) doped with Eu and Sm, and can work either as scintillators or as storage phosphors for medical imaging. It is possible to use confocal imaging techniques to achieve very high spatial resolution. The glass-ceramic is prepared to have nanocrystalline inclusions to enhance the optical properties and to activate the rare-earth ions; the material can function either as a storage phosphor or as a scintillator, depending on the preparation and heat treatment, and the matrix composition.

    G. Chalcogenide Glasses for Photonics, with TRLabs (Edmonton). NSERC funding. Fabrication and characterization of photonic components such as waveguides, Bragg gratings and Er-doped optical amplifiers. We have been able to dope Ge-Ga-Se glasses with 2at.% Er3+, and have demonstrated efficient Bragg gratings, waveguides and omnidirectional reflectors. The work is of fundamental importance in optical communications since these glasses have long photoluminescence lifetimes, and can be doped with high amounts of Er3+, both essential for the next generation of optical amplifiers in integrated photonics (i.e. "active erbium-doped waveguides".)

    H. Characterization of Glasses: Electrical, Optical, Thermal and Mechanical Properties. (In collaboration with Professor Tomas Wagner, Pardubice University, former PDF). NSERC funding. This project has been continuing since 1986 as fundamental research on non-oxide glasses for photonics and optoelectronics. The development of novel Er-doped GaGeSe and GaGeS glasses that have excellent potential for optical communications stemmed from this project.

    Collaborative Research

    Our major collaborator is Dr. John Rowlands and his group at Sunnybrook Hospital, University of Toronto.

    Dr. John Rowlands, Chief Medical Physicist, Sunnybrook Hospital, University of Toronto. We have an extensive ongoing collaboration Dr. John Rowlands's group on a-Se flat panel digital x-ray image detectors. This collaboration has been ging on since 1995

    We also collaborate with:

    Professor Ray Decorby, Electrical and Computer Engineering, U of Alberta, Edmonton. Research on "Chalcogenide Glasses For Photonics". We published numerous papers jointly.

    Dr. Chris Haugen, TR Labs, Edmonton, Alberta. Research on "Chalcogenide Glasses For Photonics". We published numerous papers jointly.

    Professor Tom Wagner, Pardubice University, Czech republic. Research on "Preparation of Chalcogenide Glasses For Photonics". We published numerous papers jointly.

    Dr. Andy Edgar, Wellington Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand. Research on Europium Doped ZBLAN Glasses for Optoelectronics. Glasses are prepared in Wellington, and characterization carried out in Saskatoon.

    Professor Asim Ray, Queen Mary London University, London, England, Research on CdS Photoconductive Films for X-ray Detector Applications.

    Professor Kouji Maeda, Miyazaki University, Japan. Research on Erbium Doped Chalcogenide Glasses for Photonics (Optical Amplifiers). We have numerous joint papers in conferences and journals. We frequently receive visiting academics from Miyazaki University

    Professor Koichi Shimakawa, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan. Research on Irradiation Induced Effects in a-Se and other Chalcogenide Photoconductors (Applications in X-ray Image Detectors)

    Professors Takeshi Aoki and S. Kobayashi, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Research on Rare Earth Doped Photoluminescence in Chalcogenide Glasses and Properties of Thin Films of a-SiN

    Professor Stephen O'Leary, University of Windsor. Research on Modeling Charge Transport in Amorphous Semiconductors.